WHAT IS RENAL TRANSPLANTATION?
Renal or kidney transplantation, is a surgery which involve implantation of a healthy donor kidney to a patient suffering from an end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
There are two types of donors:
- Living Donor: Usually healthy individual has two kidneys and he can donate one kidney without any implication to his future life. If any healthy blood group matched relative of ESRD patient donate a kidney for him, it is called living kidney donation.
- Decease Donor: Organs taken from brain dead or sometime, cardiac death patients are used to give new life to patients suffering with end organ damage. Both kidneys of such brain death patients are used and two patients of ESRD are transplanted each kidney. Such transplantation is governed by NOTTO (National Organ & Tissue Transplant Organisation). Hospitals with transplant facilities maintain a waiting list of ESRD patients for this purpose.
On the other hand, the kidney taken from a deceased donor is called deceased donor kidney, and patients must get their names listed on the waiting list to get the chance for the transplant.
WHY IS RENAL TRANSPLANTATION DONE?
Renal transplantation is the definitive treatment for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). ESRD can be defined as patients who are suffering with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and require regular dialysis or possibility of permanent dialysis requirement is imminent.
WHAT TO EXPECT BEFORE THE TRANSPLANT?
Before transplant surgery, donor and recipient have to undergo certain investigations related to fitness for surgery, matching of kidney and proof of relationship. Donor is evaluated whether he / she is fit for donation and not suffering with any disease which can impact his life after donation. Better one of his two kidneys, is left with donor. Certain legal formalities have to be done for approval of transplantation by committee.
The other hand, in cadaveric donation, two to three blood group matched ESRD patients are called as per waitlist, as and when cadaveric kidney is available for transplantation. They are prepared for transplantation and one who has best cross match with donor kidney receive the kidney graft.
ADVANTAGES OF RENAL TRANSPLANTATION
Renal transplantation is one of the best ways to treat the patient suffering from the end-stage renal disease. Below are some of the advantages of a renal transplant:
- Treats kidney failure
- Quality Life
- No More Dialysis
- Increased Life Expectancy
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT RENAL TRANSPLANTATION?
Just like every transplant, renal transplant is also associated with some of the risks and complications that can occur after the renal transplant procedure. Some of the complications a patient may experience after a renal transplant are rejection of the donor kidney, infection, bleeding, failure of the donor kidney and reaction to medications. Regular follow up and investigations are required for early diagnosis and treatment of any of these complications.